COVID19

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak

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#Coronavirus TypeDrugs Used:Status and mechanisms:FDA Approved?Countries:It was useful?How many people affected?Positive Results:Negative Results:Guideline:References:Notes:
1COVID-19Lopinavir 200mg /Ritonavir 50mg twice a day + Oseltamivir + ChloroquineNAYESIndiaYES770NALink1.1
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2COVID-19RemdesivirPhosphoramidate prodrug of an adenine analog used for Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks (similar structure to approved HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors)Not FoundDiamond Princess cruise shipYES14>70Remdesivir intravenously once a day for 10 daysLink2.1
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Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection **
3COVID-19Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquineEndosomal acidification fusion inhibitorYESChina, South Korea, IndiaYES>100>1000Link3.2Link3.3
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Chloroquine patients corona covid
4COVID-19Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)NAYESWuhan, ChinaYES44075 mg of oseltamivir taken orally every 12 hoursLink4.1
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Had positive RT-PCR test results 5 to 13 days later. These findings suggest that at least a proportion of recovered patients still may be virus carriers.
5COVID-19APN01 (ACE2 protein decoy)NANot FoundChina, Austria, and CanadaYES24Phase I and Phase II clinical trials was safeNALink5.1
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6COVID-19FavilavirNot FoundShenzhen, ChinaYES70700Link6.1
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Googled: Favilavir corona covid patients
7COVID-19Lopinavir and Ritonavir NAYESIndia, SingaporeYES>20>200Lopinavir 200mg / Ritonavir 50mg twice a dayLink7.1
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8COVID-19 , SARS-CoVCamostat mesilate (TMPRSS2 inhibitor)SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on thehost cell factors ACE2(explained above)and TMPRSS2. TMPRSS2 stands for “Transmembrane Protease Serine 2”, and is a transmembrane protease of the serine protease family that is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. TMPRSS2 can be blocked by a clinically provenprotease inhibitorCamostatMesylate. This drug is known to inhibit TMPRSS2, and therefore could theoretically prevent viral infection of the host cell via this transmembrane protease. This therefore could be a potential therapeutic agent for COVID-19 infection. Camostat Mesylate has been approvedin Japan for the treatment of pancreatic inflammation.When tested on SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient, Camostat managed to preventthe entry of the virus into lung cells.Not FoundGermany, JapanWhen tested on SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient, Camostat managed to preventthe entry of the virus into lung cells.NANANANALink8.1
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Clinical Trial is going on!
9SARS-CoV, MERS-COVNiclosamide, ValinomycinNiclosamideis a parasitic worm treatment. In a study it was found to have some impact in inhibiting SARS virus replication.YESNANANANANANALink9.1
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10COVID-19Sofosbuvir, RibavirinRibavarin functions as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and although it has been reported to have anti-MERS-CoV activitythe dose required results in toxicity. Hence, treatment with or without corticosteroids, and with Lopinavir and Ritonavir are among the combinations employed. Efficacy has been assessed in observational study, a retrospective case series, a retrospective cohort study, a prospective observational study, a prospective cohort study and a randomised controlled trial ranging from 7 to 229 participants.YESSouth KoreaClinical trials are ongoing with Ribavirin in combination with other drugs to treat COVID-19.NANANASouth Korean physicianguidelines state to only consider using ribavirin and interferon only if lopinavir/ritonavir or chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine does not work, or the administration is impossible.This is due to the side effects.Link10.1
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Clinical trials are ongoing with Ribavirin in combination with other drugs to treat COVID-19
11SARS-CoVInterferon alfacon-1 in conjunction with corticosteroidsCorticosteroids were widely used in SARS due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Potential local and systemic immunosuppression by corticosteroids is concerning. Evidence reviews up to 2016 conclude that steroid use causes possible harm. A recent 2018 study found that MERS patients who received corticosteroids were more likely to receive invasive ventilation and had higher 90-day crude mortality.Not FoundNANANANANALink11.1
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12COVID-19Ampligen® (rintatolimod)Drug for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)Not FoundJapanClinical trials will beginNANANANALink12.1
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13COVID-19Ganovo® (Danoprevir) plus RitonavirDanoprevir is potent Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS3/4A Protease and ritonavir is a approved protease inhibitors for HIVYESChinaYES1111NANALink13.1
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14COVID-19ASC-09 / Ritonavir, Lopinavir / Ritonavir, with or without UmifenovirASC09 is an experimental HIV-1 protease inhibitor; ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir are approved protease inhibitors for HIV/AIDS; umifenovir is an approved entry inhibitor against influenzaYESIndia, SingaporeYESNANANALink14.1Link14.2
ChiCTR2000029603
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15COVID-19ASC-09 / Oseltamivir, Ritonavir/Oseltamivir, OseltamivirSee above; oseltamivir is a sialidase inhibitor approved for influenzaYESNANANANANANCT04261270
16COVID-19AzvudineExperimental reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug against HIV-1/AIDSNot FoundChinaNA20 in clinical trialNANANALink16
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17COVID-19Various combinations of baloxavir marboxil / favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavirBaloxavir marboxil is a Cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor and favipiravir is a guanine analog RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor approved for influenza A and B; see aboveYESChinaNA30 in clinical trial NANANALink17.1
ChiCTR2000029544
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18COVID-19Various combinations of darunavir/cobicistat alone or with thymosin α1Darunavir and cobicistat are, respectively, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor and inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A enzyme, approved as a combination against HIV-1/AIDS. Thymosin α1 is an immune response boosting agentYESChinaNA30 in clinical trialNANANALink18.1
NCT04252274
ChiCTR2000029541
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19COVID-19MethylprednisoloneSynthetic corticosteroid that binds to nuclear receptors to dampen proinflammatory cytokinesYESChinaNA100 in clinical trialNANANALink19.1
NCT04263402
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treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death.
20COVID-19Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirinInterferon alfa-2b is a recombinant cytokine with antiviral properties; ribavirin is a guanine derivative; as aboveYESWuhan, ChinaNA100 in clinical trialNANANALink20.1
NCT04254874
ChiCTR2000029308
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21COVID-19Camrelizumab and ThymosinCamrelizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting PD-1NOWuhan, ChinaNA120 in clinical trialNANANALink21.1
ChiCTR2000029806
NCT04268537
22COVID-19TocilizumabHumanized mAb targeting interleukin-6YESWuhan, ChinaYES21210400 mg once through an intravenous dripLink22.1
ChiCTR2000029765
chinaXiv:202003.00026v1
23COVID-19NasoVAXThe coronavirus vaccine is being developed based on a vaccine technology platform that is similar to NasoVAX, an influenza vaccine developed by Altimmune.YESUSANAPre-ClinicalNANANALink23.1
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24COVID-19INO-4800by Inovio Pharmaceuticals and Beijing Advaccine BiotechnologyYESUSANAPre-ClinicalNANANALink24.1
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25COVID-19NP-120 (Ifenprodil)Algernon PharmaceuticalsYESUSANAPre-ClinicalNANANALink25.1
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26COVID-19 , SARS-CoVAPN01 (ACE2 protein decoy)University of British Columbia and APEIRON BiologicsChinaNA24 in clinical trialNANANALink26.1
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27COVID-19mRNA-1273 vaccineModerna and Vaccine Research CenterUSANA45 in clinical trialNANANALink27.1
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28COVID-19Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) vaccineMIGAL Research InstituteIsraelNAPre-ClinicalNANANALink28.1
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29COVID-19TNX-1800Tonix PharmaceuticalsUSANAPre-ClinicalNANANALink29.1
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30COVID-19BrilacidinInnovation PharmaceuticalsYESUSANAPre-ClinicalNANANALink30.1
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31COVID-19Leronlimab (PRO 140)a CCR5 antagonistYESUSANA75 in clinical trialNANANALink31.1
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32MERS-COVINO-4700 (GLS-5300)DNA plasmid vaccine that expresses the MERS CoV spike (S) glycoprotein.NOUSAYES75 vaccinated94%6%administered intradermally (ID) followed by electroporation at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/dose assessing 2 and 3-dose regimensLink32.1
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high levels of antibody responses in 94% of subjects, while also generating broad-based T cell responses in 88% of study participants
33COVID-19Galidesivir (BCX4430, Immucillin-A)It is a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor that disrupts the process of viral replication.NOUSASafe24 volunteers"Mostly"(Phase I) four single-dose cohorts of 5mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg by intravenous (IV) infusionLink33.1
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Has shown broad-spectrum activity in vitro against more than 20 RNA viruses in nine different families, including coronaviruses. is being assessed for yellow fever in a Phase II trial.
Phase 1 clinical trial evaluated intravenous (IV) galidesivir in healthy volunteers. In the trial, galidesivir was generally safe and well tolerated.
34MERS-COVREGN3048 and REGN3051neutralising monoclonal antibodies that bind to S-protein of MERSNOUSASafe and well tolerated36 volunteersNANA(Phase I) single IV doses (1.5, 5, 15, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of each of the two mAb's)Link34.1
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The intravenous administration of the drug in the mouse model of MERS resulted in the high-level neutralisation of the MERS coronavirus in circulating blood with reduced viral loads in the lungs.
35COVID-19TAK-888 (anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin)The H-IG therapy includes concentrated pathogen-specific antibodies derived from plasma of recovered patients or vaccinated people. These antibodies have the potential to generate an immune response when injected into a new patient.NOUSA, JapanNANANANANALink35.1
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In preclinical development
36SARS-CoV, COVID-19B-cell and T-Cell epitopesalso enable the formation of memory cells which drive a faster response if the same structures are encountered again.NOUSANANANANANALink36.1
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T:27 epitope-sequences of 115 T cell epitopes that were determined by positive T cell assays, were identical within SARS-CoV-2 proteins. All 27 in either the N (16) or S (11) protein. For 19 of these MHC binding assays were performed, and these were associated with only five distinct MHC alleles (at 4-digit resolution): HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*40:01, HLA-DRA*01:01, HLA-DRB1*07:01, and HLA-DRB1*04:01. The accumulated population coverage of these epitopes is estimated to not be high for the global population (59.76%), and was quite low for China (32.36%).
3 of 229 non-inducing (T-cell response) epitopes (GYQPYRVVVL, QPYRVVVLSF, and PYRVVVLSF) were located entirely in the SARS-CoV receptor-binding motif known to be important for virus cell entry.
B:49 epitope-sequences of 298 T cell epitopes that were determined by positive T cell assays, were identical within SARS-CoV-2 proteins. 45 in S (23) or N (22) protein, while the remaining (4) were from the M protein.
For 3 of the discontinuous B cell epitopes (corresponding to antibodies S230, m396, and 80R), there was a partial mapping, with at least one site having an identical residue at the corresponding site in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, but their antibodies might not be able to bind to the same regions in SARS-CoV-2 S protein.
LJI-based Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), which contains over 600,000 known epitopes from some 3,600 different species, and the Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR), a complementary repository of information about pathogenic viruses.