Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak
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|#||Coronavirus Type||Drugs Used:||Status and mechanisms:||FDA Approved?||Countries:||It was useful?||How many people affected?||Positive Results:||Negative Results:||Guideline:||References:||Notes:|
|1||COVID-19||Lopinavir 200mg /Ritonavir 50mg twice a day + Oseltamivir + Chloroquine||NA||YES||India||YES||7||7||0||NA||Link1.1 |
|2||COVID-19||Remdesivir||Phosphoramidate prodrug of an adenine analog used for Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks (similar structure to approved HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors)||Not Found||Diamond Princess cruise ship||YES||14||>7||0||Remdesivir intravenously once a day for 10 days||Link2.1|
|Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection **|
|3||COVID-19||Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine||Endosomal acidification fusion inhibitor||YES||China, South Korea, India||YES||>100||>100||0||Link3.2||Link3.3|
|Chloroquine patients corona covid|
|4||COVID-19||Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)||NA||YES||Wuhan, China||YES||4||4||0||75 mg of oseltamivir taken orally every 12 hours||Link4.1|
|Had positive RT-PCR test results 5 to 13 days later. These findings suggest that at least a proportion of recovered patients still may be virus carriers.|
|5||COVID-19||APN01 (ACE2 protein decoy)||NA||Not Found||China, Austria, and Canada||YES||24||Phase I and Phase II clinical trials was safe||NA||Link5.1|
|6||COVID-19||Favilavir||Not Found||Shenzhen, China||YES||70||70||0||Link6.1|
|Googled: Favilavir corona covid patients|
|7||COVID-19||Lopinavir and Ritonavir||NA||YES||India, Singapore||YES||>20||>20||0||Lopinavir 200mg / Ritonavir 50mg twice a day||Link7.1|
|8||COVID-19 , SARS-CoV||Camostat mesilate (TMPRSS2 inhibitor)||SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on thehost cell factors ACE2(explained above)and TMPRSS2. TMPRSS2 stands for “Transmembrane Protease Serine 2”, and is a transmembrane protease of the serine protease family that is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. TMPRSS2 can be blocked by a clinically provenprotease inhibitorCamostatMesylate. This drug is known to inhibit TMPRSS2, and therefore could theoretically prevent viral infection of the host cell via this transmembrane protease. This therefore could be a potential therapeutic agent for COVID-19 infection. Camostat Mesylate has been approvedin Japan for the treatment of pancreatic inflammation.When tested on SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient, Camostat managed to preventthe entry of the virus into lung cells.||Not Found||Germany, Japan||When tested on SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient, Camostat managed to preventthe entry of the virus into lung cells.||NA||NA||NA||NA||Link8.1|
|Clinical Trial is going on!|
|9||SARS-CoV, MERS-COV||Niclosamide, Valinomycin||Niclosamideis a parasitic worm treatment. In a study it was found to have some impact in inhibiting SARS virus replication.||YES||NA||NA||NA||NA||NA||NA||Link9.1|
|10||COVID-19||Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin||Ribavarin functions as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and although it has been reported to have anti-MERS-CoV activitythe dose required results in toxicity. Hence, treatment with or without corticosteroids, and with Lopinavir and Ritonavir are among the combinations employed. Efficacy has been assessed in observational study, a retrospective case series, a retrospective cohort study, a prospective observational study, a prospective cohort study and a randomised controlled trial ranging from 7 to 229 participants.||YES||South Korea||Clinical trials are ongoing with Ribavirin in combination with other drugs to treat COVID-19.||NA||NA||NA||South Korean physicianguidelines state to only consider using ribavirin and interferon only if lopinavir/ritonavir or chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine does not work, or the administration is impossible.This is due to the side effects.||Link10.1|
|Clinical trials are ongoing with Ribavirin in combination with other drugs to treat COVID-19|
|11||SARS-CoV||Interferon alfacon-1 in conjunction with corticosteroids||Corticosteroids were widely used in SARS due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Potential local and systemic immunosuppression by corticosteroids is concerning. Evidence reviews up to 2016 conclude that steroid use causes possible harm. A recent 2018 study found that MERS patients who received corticosteroids were more likely to receive invasive ventilation and had higher 90-day crude mortality.||Not Found||NA||NA||NA||NA||NA||Link11.1|
|12||COVID-19||Ampligen® (rintatolimod)||Drug for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)||Not Found||Japan||Clinical trials will begin||NA||NA||NA||NA||Link12.1|
|13||COVID-19||Ganovo® (Danoprevir) plus Ritonavir||Danoprevir is potent Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS3/4A Protease and ritonavir is a approved protease inhibitors for HIV||YES||China||YES||11||11||NA||NA||Link13.1|
|14||COVID-19||ASC-09 / Ritonavir, Lopinavir / Ritonavir, with or without Umifenovir||ASC09 is an experimental HIV-1 protease inhibitor; ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir are approved protease inhibitors for HIV/AIDS; umifenovir is an approved entry inhibitor against influenza||YES||India, Singapore||YES||NA||NA||NA||Link14.1||Link14.2|
|15||COVID-19||ASC-09 / Oseltamivir, Ritonavir/Oseltamivir, Oseltamivir||See above; oseltamivir is a sialidase inhibitor approved for influenza||YES||NA||NA||NA||NA||NA||NCT04261270|
|16||COVID-19||Azvudine||Experimental reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug against HIV-1/AIDS||Not Found||China||NA||20 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link16|
|17||COVID-19||Various combinations of baloxavir marboxil / favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir||Baloxavir marboxil is a Cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor and favipiravir is a guanine analog RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor approved for influenza A and B; see above||YES||China||NA||30 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link17.1|
|18||COVID-19||Various combinations of darunavir/cobicistat alone or with thymosin α1||Darunavir and cobicistat are, respectively, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor and inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A enzyme, approved as a combination against HIV-1/AIDS. Thymosin α1 is an immune response boosting agent||YES||China||NA||30 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link18.1|
|19||COVID-19||Methylprednisolone||Synthetic corticosteroid that binds to nuclear receptors to dampen proinflammatory cytokines||YES||China||NA||100 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link19.1|
|treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death.|
|20||COVID-19||Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin||Interferon alfa-2b is a recombinant cytokine with antiviral properties; ribavirin is a guanine derivative; as above||YES||Wuhan, China||NA||100 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link20.1|
|21||COVID-19||Camrelizumab and Thymosin||Camrelizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting PD-1||NO||Wuhan, China||NA||120 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link21.1|
|22||COVID-19||Tocilizumab||Humanized mAb targeting interleukin-6||YES||Wuhan, China||YES||21||21||0||400 mg once through an intravenous drip||Link22.1|
|23||COVID-19||NasoVAX||The coronavirus vaccine is being developed based on a vaccine technology platform that is similar to NasoVAX, an influenza vaccine developed by Altimmune.||YES||USA||NA||Pre-Clinical||NA||NA||NA||Link23.1|
|24||COVID-19||INO-4800||by Inovio Pharmaceuticals and Beijing Advaccine Biotechnology||YES||USA||NA||Pre-Clinical||NA||NA||NA||Link24.1|
|25||COVID-19||NP-120 (Ifenprodil)||Algernon Pharmaceuticals||YES||USA||NA||Pre-Clinical||NA||NA||NA||Link25.1|
|26||COVID-19 , SARS-CoV||APN01 (ACE2 protein decoy)||University of British Columbia and APEIRON Biologics||China||NA||24 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link26.1|
|27||COVID-19||mRNA-1273 vaccine||Moderna and Vaccine Research Center||USA||NA||45 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link27.1|
|28||COVID-19||Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) vaccine||MIGAL Research Institute||Israel||NA||Pre-Clinical||NA||NA||NA||Link28.1|
|31||COVID-19||Leronlimab (PRO 140)||a CCR5 antagonist||YES||USA||NA||75 in clinical trial||NA||NA||NA||Link31.1|
|32||MERS-COV||INO-4700 (GLS-5300)||DNA plasmid vaccine that expresses the MERS CoV spike (S) glycoprotein.||NO||USA||YES||75 vaccinated||94%||6%||administered intradermally (ID) followed by electroporation at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/dose assessing 2 and 3-dose regimens||Link32.1|
|high levels of antibody responses in 94% of subjects, while also generating broad-based T cell responses in 88% of study participants|
|33||COVID-19||Galidesivir (BCX4430, Immucillin-A)||It is a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor that disrupts the process of viral replication.||NO||USA||Safe||24 volunteers||"Mostly"||(Phase I) four single-dose cohorts of 5mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg by intravenous (IV) infusion||Link33.1|
|Has shown broad-spectrum activity in vitro against more than 20 RNA viruses in nine different families, including coronaviruses. is being assessed for yellow fever in a Phase II trial.
Phase 1 clinical trial evaluated intravenous (IV) galidesivir in healthy volunteers. In the trial, galidesivir was generally safe and well tolerated.
|34||MERS-COV||REGN3048 and REGN3051||neutralising monoclonal antibodies that bind to S-protein of MERS||NO||USA||Safe and well tolerated||36 volunteers||NA||NA||(Phase I) single IV doses (1.5, 5, 15, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of each of the two mAb's)||Link34.1|
|The intravenous administration of the drug in the mouse model of MERS resulted in the high-level neutralisation of the MERS coronavirus in circulating blood with reduced viral loads in the lungs.|
|35||COVID-19||TAK-888 (anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin)||The H-IG therapy includes concentrated pathogen-specific antibodies derived from plasma of recovered patients or vaccinated people. These antibodies have the potential to generate an immune response when injected into a new patient.||NO||USA, Japan||NA||NA||NA||NA||NA||Link35.1|
|In preclinical development|
|36||SARS-CoV, COVID-19||B-cell and T-Cell epitopes||also enable the formation of memory cells which drive a faster response if the same structures are encountered again.||NO||USA||NA||NA||NA||NA||NA||Link36.1|
|T:27 epitope-sequences of 115 T cell epitopes that were determined by positive T cell assays, were identical within SARS-CoV-2 proteins. All 27 in either the N (16) or S (11) protein. For 19 of these MHC binding assays were performed, and these were associated with only five distinct MHC alleles (at 4-digit resolution): HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*40:01, HLA-DRA*01:01, HLA-DRB1*07:01, and HLA-DRB1*04:01. The accumulated population coverage of these epitopes is estimated to not be high for the global population (59.76%), and was quite low for China (32.36%).
3 of 229 non-inducing (T-cell response) epitopes (GYQPYRVVVL, QPYRVVVLSF, and PYRVVVLSF) were located entirely in the SARS-CoV receptor-binding motif known to be important for virus cell entry.
B:49 epitope-sequences of 298 T cell epitopes that were determined by positive T cell assays, were identical within SARS-CoV-2 proteins. 45 in S (23) or N (22) protein, while the remaining (4) were from the M protein.
For 3 of the discontinuous B cell epitopes (corresponding to antibodies S230, m396, and 80R), there was a partial mapping, with at least one site having an identical residue at the corresponding site in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, but their antibodies might not be able to bind to the same regions in SARS-CoV-2 S protein.
LJI-based Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), which contains over 600,000 known epitopes from some 3,600 different species, and the Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR), a complementary repository of information about pathogenic viruses.